Anti-Semitism was often associated with Gentile movements for national cohesion.38 A key theme was that Gentile participation in cohesive groups with high levels of conformity was symptomatic of patholow. However, MacDonald points out that this touchstone was not applied to Jews for whom group cohesion and affinity were ignored, 39 Gentile collectivist tendencies are thought to ultimately lead to anti-Semitic mass movements, such as German National Socialism. According to MacDonald, expression of Gentile group solidarity is often deUgitimized as "right wing extremism," as evidenced by, for example, Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab's study on the topic. The Politics of Unreason: Right Wing Extremism in America, 1790- 1970.
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